Climate change

22 01, 2013

Effects of global warming and tourism on the Great Barrier Reef in Queensland, Australia

By |January 22nd, 2013|Climate change, International Tourism Context, literature review|0 Comments

As part of their master in Tourism Destination Management study program, the students have written literature reviews in the domain of “International Tourism Context”. In this fourth of six literature reviews Stefanie Huebner talks about effects of global warming and tourism on the Great Barrier Reef in Queensland
Introduction
Ruhanen (2008) identifies an increasing need to adapt the principles of sustainability in tourism development planning and management. More destinations are facing severe ecological, economical and socio-cultural threats and entering a stage of no return (Conservation International, 2003). Given this critical situation, awareness of the stakeholders is important. These stakeholders include “any group or individual who can affect, or is affected by the achievement of a corporation’s purpose” (Friedmann, 2006).

The natural environment of a destination and the climate conditions are essential drivers, influencing the choice (Becken & Hay, 2007), suitability and the unique charm of a tourism destination (Dwyer & Kim, 2003). The effects of global warming are strongly connected to visitor behavior. Sensitive ecosystems are vulnerable to global warming and the human impacts from visitors and locals.

Dwyer (2007) claims that impacts of global warming and tourism are constantly increasing. Conservation International (2003) considers tourism to be an opportunity for conserving nature and a threat if it is done improperly.

The effects of global warming as well as the immense rising number of visitors threaten the social, economic and cultural value to the people of Australia (GBRMPA, 2012).

The Great Barrier Reef, faces the threat of global warming. This is mainly caused by greenhouse gases as a result of human activity, leading to an increase of the sea temperatures and impacting upon coral reefs (WWF, 2004). Statistics show that the Great Barrier Reef will lose 95% of its living coral by 2050 (New Scientist, 2004).

The lack of awareness of visitors and locals, visible in unsustainable reef use, has a severe impact on the survival of the reef (GBRMPA, 2012).

Only little attention is given to other causes of depletion of the Great Barrier Reef such as cyclones  or the crown-of-thorns starfish overpopulation (Brodie, Fabricius, De’ath, Okaji).

In this literature review I discuss the different causes for the depletion of sensitive areas, using the example of the Great Barrier Reef. Solutions for sustainable management and preservation need to be considered on both global and national level.

[…]

22 01, 2013

Consequences of Peak Oil on Global Tourism Demand

By |January 22nd, 2013|Climate change, International Tourism Context, Publication|0 Comments

As part of their master in Tourism Destination Management study program, the students have written literature reviews in the domain of “International Tourism Context”. In this second of six literature reviews Maria Klampfl discusses the consequences of peak oil on global tourism demand.
Introduction
Oil is a finite resource. Though, the global trends in energy supply and consumption are environmentally, economically and socially unsustainable (Matutinovic, 2011, p.1131; 1129). Experts are increasingly warning about the rising energy challenge, the Western civilization and the world as a whole will have to face within the next decade (Matutinovic, 2011, p.1131; 1129; Nell & Cooper, 2008, p.1096). The consequences of less affordable oil on society are inherently complex (Becken, 2010, p.373). In fact, the diminishing oil reserves will put a “definite constrain on economic growth, global distribution of life- styles and the level of integration of global economy” (Matutinovic, 2011, p.1131). It will, furthermore, affect tourism and the way in which it is operating today.

The demand for oil is constantly escalating and it is alarming that while in the past “new oil reserves were discovered at a greater rate than consumption”, at present it is the opposite – new oil fields are detected at a lower rate than consumption (Becken, 2008, p.696). The oil price is influenced by multiple factors. Nevertheless on a long-term perspective, oil prices are “driven by world oil demand and supply, which is ultimately limited by resources” (Becken & Lennox, 2011, p.133). Scare supply of energy is inevitably leading to dramatically increasing oil prices. This will have significant effects on the transport and airline industry and will consequential affect the whole tourism industry (Leigh, 2011, p.165; 167; 169).

Becken claimed, yet there is only little “awareness of energy security and peak production of oil” within the tourism industry (2008, p.695). Furthermore tourism research has largely left out the issue of energy consumption in relation to a long term future of tourism. Accordingly this paper aims to increase the awareness of a possible oil scarcity and investigates the potential consequences of peak oil on the future global tourism development.
[…]

1 11, 2010

Tourism, Conservation and Displacement

By |November 1st, 2010|Africa, Climate change, Ungategorized|2 Comments

Ecotourism -as opposed to mass tourism- along with wildlife conservation are seen as increasingly important, given the sustainability issues of our time. Ironically, these very practices are causing displacement of indigenous peoples in some parts of the world, threatening their livelihoods.

4 10, 2009

Global Warming and Greenland: creating awareness and sustainable development do not prevent climate change

By |October 4th, 2009|Climate change, International Tourism Context, Master in Tourism Destination Management|5 Comments

Global warming has become a widespread topic recently and is repeatedly in the news. Tourism professionals have little consideration for this aspect, despite the importance of this topic on a global level and the threat for many tourism destinations it entails. The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and United Nations Environment Program (UNEP 2008) have […]

4 10, 2009

Hurricane-resistant windows or more climate responsibility? – Climate change and sustainable tourism in Jamaica

By |October 4th, 2009|Climate change, International Tourism Context, Master in Tourism Destination Management|2 Comments

Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather over periods of time that range from decades to millions of years. It can be a change in the average weather or a change in the distribution of weather events around an average*

Climate is an important issue in consideration for the tourist’s choice […]

4 10, 2009

Climate change; are we or are we not dealing with this issue?

By |October 4th, 2009|Climate change, International Tourism Context, Master in Tourism Destination Management, North America|4 Comments

As one of the world’s largest, rapidly growing industries, tourism is particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change (UNEP/UNWTO, 2008). This is a result of tourism being dependent on its customers flying to their destinations and possible warming or cooling effects that a changing climate may affect. Considering the tourism potential growth and […]

4 10, 2009

The importance and implication of nature conservation in South Africa’s national parks

By |October 4th, 2009|Africa, Climate change, International Tourism Context, Master in Tourism Destination Management|2 Comments

Climate change has become a global environmental problem for multiple countries and it is affecting the local communities in a severe way.  Because of the increasing amount of evidence regarding global warming and climate change and the potential impacts of such change on many forms of tourism, the aspect of climate-tourism interactions warrants immediate […]

4 10, 2009

Taiwan – Cycling for greener tourism

By |October 4th, 2009|Asia, Climate change, International Tourism Context, Master in Tourism Destination Management, Taiwan|2 Comments

The Taiwan Tourism Bureau is promoting “green travel” in line with the trend towards energy conservation and carbon reduction. Used in combination with railway and highway transport, bicycles allow travelers to penetrate deeply into Taiwan’s countryside and experience local cultures.

Bicycle travel is an expression of the emphasis that more and more people are placing […]

4 10, 2009

Climate change: impacts on tourism industry

By |October 4th, 2009|Climate change, International Tourism Context, Master in Tourism Destination Management|9 Comments

Just a few weeks ago there was the gathering of world leaders; climate change was the main topic of discussion at the gathering of world leaders at the UN headquarters, New York. This discussion will definitely continue for many years to come. A recent article posted on the World Bank website titled:  A climate […]